VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS
A value chain analysis, providing both qualitative and quantitative background information, is to be undertaken for all case studies (products) included in the project before an econometric analysis is undertaken. Sources of information for this analysis may include secondary data, published or unpublished literature, surveys, focus groups, and rapid appraisal.
The value chain analysis will include the following stages:
1. Production: capture fishery or aquaculture.
This will include information on whether it is capture fishery or aquaculture, freshwater or marine, production quantity, price and technology / technologies used in the harvest process. How many people are directly employed in the production sector? What information is available on relative incomes of fishermen / fish farmers and the non-fishing sector and how has this changed overtime? Are there fishermen’s associations to support fishermen/fish farmers in discussions with government, regulators and buyers? What is the structure of fisheries management? Is it open access, licenses, net size regulations, etc.? How are regulations enforced? For capture fisheries, stock information must be included.
This will include information about products produced (e.g. fresh, salted, dried, canned, refrigerated or frozen), technology / technologies used, major inputs and costs. How many people work in the processing sector? What proportion of catch is processed in the region and what proportion is sold out of the region or exported for processing?
3. Transportation. This will include pre and post processing transportation, where applicable. Two things here, first, how important is transportation in the fish supply chain and second, what is the cost of transportation and how has this changed over time. Is transportation a public or private business matter?
4. Final consumption. What portion of the product is sold domestically versus exported? This includes information about what kind of products are sold in the different markets.
This would include fisheries management regulations for capture fisheries, entry / environmental regulations for fish farms, sanitary/health regulations, tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade etc. Also what regulations are imposed on sale of fish? Are there restrictions on who can buy and sell fish?
6. Market structure.
The product will be traded at each stage of the value chain (first hand market, intermediate market, export market, retail market etc.). It is important to learn about market structure at different stages, in particular, how many buyers and sellers there are. How are prices determined? Are fish sold under contract or in auction or what? In addition, information about substitutes is required.
7. Data availability.
This must give an overview of data availability (variables, length of time series etc.) at the different stages of the value chain. For this section, follow the data requirements of both the structural and reduced form models as set out in Bjørndal and Gordon (2010).
Some products will go through different types of processing. An example is given by tuna from the Maldives. This product will involve limited processing in the Maldives before export to Sri Lanka or Thailand, where it is canned prior to export to overseas markets. Where this is the case, the product must be followed throughout its lifecycle.
As pointed out, this background analysis will partly be qualitative and partly quantitative. The purpose is to give the reader a good understanding of the relevant value chain. It will also be important for interpreting the results from the econometric price analyses.