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The project of shared car APP: solution for air pollution

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The project of shared car APP: solution for air pollution

Executive Summary

Air pollution has become one of the global problems that has troubled different governments around the world. Traffic is one major source for air pollution. Nowadays, the number of private cars is growing and this will make the problem more serious in the future. This project is aim to solve this problem and to change people’s travel selection in their daily life. It is aim to develop a shared cars APP to promote the conception of green travel in society.

 

Introduction

This project aims to solve the problem of air pollution caused by private cars in society. It suggests developing shared care to reduce the using of private cars in cities. Shared cars will be equipped with environmentally friendly energy to reduce air pollution. It is aimed to develop an APP for the customers to search for and use the shared bikes. The target customers for this project will be the young generation who is interested in freshness in society.

1.0 Brief

1.1 Interpretation of the problem

Urban traffic is the fundamental for the operation of the cities. It determines the citizens’ daily trips in the city. The traffic space determines the layout of the city. The connection between different cities is also determined by traffic. The highly developed traffic space and the Internet technology have grown into the links between different cities (Dons et al, 2013).

The entering of the industrial age since the end of the nineteenth century promoted the developed countries to get the auto age. For hundred years’ development, the number of motor vehicles has reached more than one billion around the world. Reserved car has become a major trip mode for the citizens. At the same time, the problem of excess private cares has caused a series of problems for the city space and environmental problem. In some cities, urban space congestion, air pollution and inadequate parking space have become the everyday problems in the modern days (Angelino et al, 1993).

The traditional traffic mode is sometimes difficult to satisfy people’s travel and environmental protection demand. This provides the appropriate condition for the development of shared cars. Sharing car also becomes a travel choice for the public in society.

1.2 Rationale

Political environment: traffic congestion problem has become one of the major problems that disturb the management of the public departments in different cities around the world. Some of the municipal departments have proposed policies to encourage the social organizations to help to solve this problem. Sharing car industry is an ecological travel mode and it will get supporting from the public departments (Verberne et al, 2012). Then the developing of sharing car app will receive the support of the present political environment.

Economic factor: sharing car is a type of economic mode of travelling for the public. Purchasing and preservation of private cars require large expenditure for the families in society. At first, purchasing of cars requires a certain amount of expenditure. Secondly, it also requires the family to pay gasoline, insurance and maintenance fee to preserve the cars. On the other hand, the average using time of the cars will be set at one or two hours each day (Bellos, 2017). Then sharing a car will be an economic model for the public compared with using private cars for the public.

Environmental factor: the using of private cars has caused environmental pollution problem in society. The emission of carbon dioxide has caused intense greenhouse effect. The public has been aware this problem and proposed the conception of green travel. Sharing car mode matches with this conception and it is pledging to solve the problem of traffic congestion and environmental pollution (Baptista et al, 2014).

Technological factor: the development of technology has brought new opportunities for the market. The development of Internet technology has provided a welcoming environment for the sharing cars. The popularization of the smart has changed people’s daily life and it also provides a convenient environment for the user experience of the sharing cars. The application of Internet of things technology allows the users to communicate with the cars through locating, anti-theft and intelligent recognition. The accurate GPS technology has become the fundamental for the development of sharing car industry (May et al, 2008).

2.0 Specification and Constraints

The functions of sharing cars APP should provide benefit for the users to find the cars and to the cars in a convenient way. In detail, the APP should own the following functions:

Membership registration: the users should add in their real information to register on the APP. It requires the user to submit certain amount of deposit before using the cars;

Mobile phone booking: the user can book the cars through the APP. It can select the type and time to use the car;

Unlock the car: the APP allows the users to unlock the booked car;

Electronic instructions: the APP will provide necessary instructions for the users to use the car;

Cost calculation: the users can check the cost for the rental cars;

Precision navigation: the APP can lead the users to find the booked cars and to guide the users to return the car after using.

The APP should be designed to respect the users’ personal information and the APP should avoid getting the private information of the user in the application.

3.0 Design methods

The ultimate aim of this project is tantamount to solve the problem of air pollution caused by the cars on the road. Electric /Hybrid cars, smart phone APP and sharing journey are the three fundamentals for the solution. In this project, it is aimed to develop a smart phone APP for the clients of the sharing cars.

At first, it will conduct research to gather necessary information to achieve this project. The information will cover the updated data for the cars used by the specific region and the pollution caused by cars in society.

Secondly, the macro and micro marketing environment will be analysed to find the marketing opportunity. It will propose the value proposition for the project and to distinguish with the competitors in the market.

Thirdly, the strengthening of the APP will be based on the marketing environment. At the same time, the marketing environment will be monitored during the process and the changes in the market will be reflected in the designing of the APP in practice.

4.0 Research and design strategies

4.1 Target markets for the product

The target customers for the APP are the young generation with the age between 20 and 30. This part customer is students or the newcomers to the workplace. It is difficult for them to purchase for the cost to purchase the cars. But they have the demand to use care in their daily life. According to related surveys, their young customers (between 20 and 30) usually pay more attention to the cost and efficiency of travel (Wappelhorst et al, 2013). They are usually the deep user of the online APP and they have the willing to try something new in their everyday life.

4.2 SWOT analyses

Strength: it is convenient for users to use the APP to the available surrounding shared cars. The cost for shared cars is lower than the taxi or private cars. Shared cars are usually equipped with new energy and this is environmental mode of travel in society.

Weakness: the endurance of the cars is less than the traditional cars and this will influence customers’ using experience for the cars. It is therefore difficult to define the responsibilities for the potential traffic accidents. The risk is prohibitive in practice.

Opportunity: the shared cars fit for the public’s green travel conception and this is popular among young customers. Development Internet and 5G technology provide technological basis for the development of shared care industry.

Threaten: it is hard to cultivate the public’s consumption habit for shared cars. The entrance barrier is weak and this leads to the result that the competition is fierce in this industry.

4.3 PEST analyses

PEST factors

Advantage

Disadvantage

Political factor

Supporting for the green travel;

Encourage to solve the traffic congestion problem

Benefit for the industrial development

More competitors in the market

Economic factor

The cost for shared cars is lower than private cars

Attract customers to select shared cars

It is hard to get profit in the market

Social factor

The conception of green travel is popular

Attract customers to select shared cars

/

Technological factor

The development Internet and 5G technology

Better using experiences for the customers

/

PEST analysis shows that the present external environment is benefit for the enhancing of the shared cars. Related APP will be popular among customers. The corporation that enters into this industry in the early time will get better competitive position in the market.

4.4 USP

At first, shared cars APP has provided the function to search for shared cars. This is all right with the users to find the proper cars near them. At the same time, the APP also provides suggestions for the users to park the cars in the urban areas in the city.

Secondly, shared care for the APP use environmentally friendly energy and this fits the users’ green travel conception. This provides a possible solution to resolve the problem of air pollution caused by auto cars and to increase the utilization ratio of cars in society.

At last, services of the shared cars, APP can be connected with big data and AI technology. The application of advanced technology can help the platform to predict the supply and demand situation for the cars. And the platform can allocate the resources in a flexible way. It can also allow the supervision software to monitor the practical condition of the cars and to deal with any emergency conditions in a short period of time.

5.0 Design development

Automobiles have long been reckoned as one of the most disastrous factors contributed to pollution. The global textile industry is one of the greatest contributors to environmental waste, polluting air, soil and water sources from all over the world. With the development of science and technologies, more and more designers are now capable of eliminating the waste as well as improving the efficiency of cars when making the designs of the cars. Traditional materials applied in cars are steel as the raw material of choice for the manufacture of car bodies. Those kinds of raw materials have always been the cheapest material because it can meet the requirements for stiffness, strength, formability as well as the weldability requirements of large-scale car body production. However, with the increasing awareness of the importance of sustainability, and legislative requirement published by the government regarding carbon emissions are now changing the overall situation. In the situation of the global calling for a more sustainable lifestyle, consumers now are asking for low fuel consumption and less carbon emission from car makers. In order to meet the goal of a more sustainable automotive, car makers are now not only working on trying to find the alternative energy that cars are consuming but also the materials used for building cars. Car sharing system is a system answering to the global calling of a more sustainable way of living. The environment-friendly sharing cars should be sustainable inside out. The outside material being used suits the purpose of the cars serving as public shared automobile cars. The colors chosen are distinguishable for users to differentiate it from other private cars and the material applied is not expensive material mainly made of metal. The chemical compounded material can meet the purpose of cost saving and be environment-friendly. What’s more, the engine components should be causing less waste and energy saving.

6.0 Design solution

6.1 Description

Car sharing system would beneficial to us all regarding its function of reducing carbon emission and energy saving. If the car sharing system is applied in our society, there would definitely be fewer cars on the road and less expense spent on cars maintenance. On the other hand, the community system is simplified for us all, and the cost of travel would be greatly reduced. Car sharing system can also be viewed as a part of public transportation which can also share the stress of our current public transportation system. Applying car sharing system would cause fewer traffic problems and fewer fossils fuel's consumption. Most importantly, there would be a reduction in exhaust emissions and noise pollution. To achieve the goal of building a sound car sharing system, we need not only the sustainable designs of our cars but also an available network system for controlling and supervising the shared cars. The design of the cars should be stem from the consideration on energy saving and environment-friendly, and those factors could be applied into the designs of cars from how the materials were chosen and how the engines are generated. How the energy input is required and how the output is emitted.

6.2 Materials and Visual aesthetics

Given the fact that those shared cars would be put on public spots where people can easily see, the colors and brands of cars should be distinct and easy to be recognized. What's more, the visual aesthetics of the cars should also be environment-friendly so that it would not cause any light pollution because there would definitely be a lot of shared cars outside on the streets. Therefore, the material chosen for the cars should not only be physically durable but also aesthetically practical. In this project, I chose to apply the carbon fiber as the main material for the shared automotive. It is now a commonly applied material in the automotive industry. This kind of Carbon fiber is combined with the reinforced plastic structures under quasi-static and dynamic axial loading which obtained from high-strength carbon fibers embedded in an epoxy resin. Compare to many other traditional textiles like steel and iron, the new textile which combined with modern technologies are tackling the main wasting issues now. Starting from a blueprint decided long before the first die is cast or thread is spun, the new chemically compounded material is able to provide the same amount of endurance and strength without making too much waste. Moreover, compared to much other traditional materials, this kind of chemical carbon fiber can provide good resistance to water, dirt, and even bacterial resistance. Different components should be cast together because casting is more durable and efficient. The color applied on the cars is blue for the electrically driven type; yellow for the fuel driven type. Both two types of sharing cars should be marked with the same style of logo and brand.

6.3 Manufacture and Components

The whole material used for the cars should be light enough given the fact that it was cast and made of carbon fibers. Apart from the design of the outside, there also should be an overall consideration about the inside components. The main factor to consider is the main engine applied that can drive the sharing cars and the input it uses to drive the engine. Traditional cars apply diesel engines most commonly, while those engines would cause great air pollution and energy consumption for that diesel engines consume fuel oils with very low efficiency of around 20-40%. With the development of the usage of new natural resources, the technique of battery-generated power is now often to be seen on the street. Compare to the fuel driven engines, the battery would be more sustainable for it doesn't cause any air pollution and electric is cheap. However, one deadly shortcoming for battery generated cars is that electric cars can't really keep running for a long time, and it's trouble for electric cars' occupants to get the cars charged because there is not so many charging stations available for the time being. If we continue to use a diesel engine, there should be some protection on the emission as well as the utilizing of the fuel. The reciprocating process should go in a speed where the power generated by the power stroke is fully utilized and absorbed by the output section of the diesel engine. The engine should be efficient enough to get up to 200 miles per gallon of gasoline. The vehicle is that it would draw electricity from a solar panel parked via a conventional electricity source, running off an ethanol backup power source beyond a 30-mile pure electric range. What’s more, there should be a scrubber on the output section of those engines so that those toxic elements from burned fuel is effectively eliminated. Therefore, there should be two options for the car sharing system to make the whole system more energy saving and sustainable. Option A of electrically driven cars offers to users who only need the car for a short distance, and option B of fuel driven cars is given to users who need long-distance travel.

6.5 Value Engineering

The value of the engineering mainly lies in how the whole pack of sustainable ideas is organized and ordered inside out from the automobile. First of all, the outside material being used suits the purpose of the cars serving as public shared automobile cars. The colors chosen are distinguishable for users to differentiate it from other private cars and the material applied is not expensive material mainly made of metal. The chemical compounded material can meet the purpose of cost saving and be environment-friendly. Secondly, there are two options available for users to choose in the sharing system given the fact the electrically driven cars are more sustainable while it can't offer long distance traveling, and fuel driven cars can provide the same amount of service as normal cars do while it's just not environmentally friendly enough. Users who need a long time for traveling can take option B of diesel engine driven cars with the higher price, and users who only need a short distance of traveling can save their money by picking the less wasteful electric cars. The sustainable designs of the diesel engines such as the improved reciprocating system and scrubber set at the output section are making the diesel engine more effective and less harmful to both people and the environment.

6.6 Human factors and legal requirements

The good operation of whole car sharing system should be equipped with a sound legal provision. First of all, the system entails a lot of human resources to organize the operation, and wherever the human resource is involved, corresponded legal terms should also be considered. Secondly, the car using is involved with a lot of safety concerns, correlated legal terms explaining where the liability when safety incidents happened should be clearly marked. Corresponded legal terms ought to be clearly written on a visible spot where users can clearly see, and the starting of the automobile should be under the consent to the legal terms by the users.

7.0 Conclusion

The problem of air pollution has become a tough problem for different cities. It is aimed use the idea of shared cars to solve the problem of air pollution caused by cars. The core sustainable ideas of designing the cars stem from three main parts. Firstly, the materials chosen for making the cars are cheap and environment-friendly. Secondly, the power generators are designed to save more energy and make less carbon emission. Thirdly, different options given to users is making the whole car sharing system more flexible. In addition, the APP for the shared cars can help customers to search the cars in a convenient way.

Reference

Angelino, E., Bardeschi, A., Colucci, A., Gnagnetti, M., Gualdi, R., & Meda, M., et al. (1993). Planning model for the assessment of air pollution caused by urban traffic. Science of the Total Environment,134(1-3), 9-19.

Baptista, P., Melo, S., & Rolim, C. (2014). Energy, environmental and mobility impacts of car-sharing systems. empirical results from lisbon, portugal. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences,111(3), 28-37.

Bellos, I., Ferguson, M., & Toktay, L. B. (2017). The car sharing economy: interaction of business model choice and product line design. Social Science Electronic Publishing,19(2).

Dons, E., Poppel, M. V., Kochan, B., Wets, G., & Panis, L. I. (2013). Modeling temporal and spatial variability of traffic-related air pollution: hourly land use regression models for black carbon. Atmospheric Environment,74(2), 237-246.

May, A., Ross, T., Grebert, J., & Segarra, G. (2008). User reaction to car share and lift share within a transport "marketplace". Iet Intelligent Transport Systems,2(1), 47-60.

Verberne, F. M. F., Ham, J., & Midden, C. J. H. (2012). Trust in smart systems: sharing driving goals and giving information to increase trustworthiness and acceptability of smart systems in cars. Human Factors,54(5), 799-810.

Wappelhorst, S., Graff, A., Steiner, J., & Hinkeldein, D. (2013). New Car Sharing Offers and Customer Groups: Implications for a Growing and Diversifying Market. European Transport Conference.

FF. (2018). Color https://www.ff.com/us/futuresight/colors-materials-finishes-future-materials/

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