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PS5001-20 Assignment 1 Planning Document

1. Title.Provide the working title of your study. This can be a question or a statement:

Examples: The 'pet effect': physiological calming in the presence of canines. Does trait anxiety mediate the effect of a companion-dog, stress-reduction intervention in undergraduates?

Guilty or not guilty: Does defendant facial expressions and gender impact on punishment given?

2. Researcher name(s).

Gemma Strange, Sarah Lansdown, Yasmin Dowell, Becca Hammond, Rebecca Angliss, Lingxue Jiang

3. Research aim(s). Briefly justify each research aim(s).

Example: The presence of a companion animal has been shown to have a beneficial effect on state anxiety (identify key research). The purpose of this study is to add manipulation of task difficulty in order to refine understanding of this calming effect.

Facial expressions of defendants, such as smiling or not and attractiveness, have been found to affect both males and females judgements of punishments for the defendant (Abel, M. and Watters, H., 2005). However, variation has been found in females judgement based on the crime (Wuensch, K., Castellow, W. and Moore, C., 1991). Additionally, the gender of the defendant has an impact on their punishment (Wuensch, K., Castellow, W. and Moore, C., 1991). Facial expressions can be on a scale from pro-social e.g. happiness, pleasant surprise, and sadness (which is inviting), to anti-social such as disgust, fear, and anger (Workman, L., Peters, S. and Taylor, S. 2000). To develop our understandings of the impact of facial expressions on crime punishments, the purpose of this study is to see whether additional types of facial expressions (pro and anti-social) of male and female defendants have an effect on female participants’ judgement of punishment for males and females committing the same crime.

4. Research predictions.NHST is based on the premise that effects in the population of interest are zero, therefore, findings that show an interaction, or other effects greater than zero, are of interest. Sketch a means plot showing what you expect these effects to be. You may or may not have prior reasons for stating the direction of an effect.

Example: Presence/absence of a companion animal will interact with task difficulty in determining anxiety levels such that, although task difficulty increases anxiety, the presence of a companion animal mitigates that effect but only at the highest level of task difficulty.

Your prediction:

Gender difference

Using anti-social in our study compared to (Abel, M. and Watters, H., 2005) who found no significant difference between smiling (pro social) and non-smiling (neutral) in the sentencing of a defendant. However, Attractive prosocial facial expression like smiling are considered more attractive therefore, an attractive leniency bias tends to be exhibited, suggesting that the prosocial condition will attain a lesser sentence. Whereas, antisocial facial expressions tend to be viewed more harshly and the sentence given will be more severe. Judging by previous research into the sentencing given to convicted defendants females sentences seem to be more lenient that males and so it is predicted that males will be sentenced more harshly in this study than the female perpetrator. (Steffensmeier, D. and Demuth, S., 2006)

5. Design.You are required to use a two-way, factorial design:

a. Factor 1 - Name, levels and type (between or within)Facial expression of subject shown in photograph­­­, either pro social (happy, smiling face), anti-social (disgust), and a neutral (control group) expression. Between groups (independent groups design). Front facing head shot.

b. Factor 2 - Name, levels and type (between or within) Whether the subject is male or female

c. State the design using numbers and brackets3 x 2

d. Name the DV – how will this be measured?judgment of culpability based on a scale, community hours how many should they do - scale 40-80 hours unpaid work/community service (Sentencing Council, 2018) based on criminal offence description.

6. Participants.

a. Define the population from which you will draw participantsBath Spa University students

b. Sample size (N, using G*Power)66

c. What inclusion and exclusion criteria will you apply? Including Bath Spa University students, aged between 18-25 years, female participants only. Excluding psychology students and individuals with previous/current experience or knowledge of criminal convictions, people who find the description of theft crime upsetting and people who have taken part in another second year psychology faces experiment.

d. How will you recruit (name of sampling procedure)? Opportunity Sampling

7. Design details. Briefly confirm how these will be done:

a. Blinding- Single blind procedure

b.Standardised instructions

  1. All participants will be given a participant information sheet to confirm they’re suitable to take part. 
  2. Following this they will complete a consent form.
  3. Participants will be shown an electronic copy of the relevant stimuli. (The stimuli will be a word document consisting of an image of either a male or female, with one of the 3 facial expressions. Beneath the image will be a couple of sentences describing the crime the subject is said to have commited e.g. Theft where low value goods were stolen (up to £500) and little or no significant additional harm to the victim or others occured (Sentencing Council, 2018). They will be given up to 5 minutes to look over the stimuli (timed by a stop watch by the researcher).
  4. After this participants will be given a scale of hours of community service (from 40-80 hours). Using the scale, participants will be asked to record how many hours of community service they believe the subject they were shown should have to do as punishment for the crime they committed (by typing this below the scale). They will be given up to 3 minutes to complete this.
  5.  After the experiment, participants will be provided with a debrief information sheet.

c. RandomizationAs this experiment is a independent groups design (between groups) there is no need to counterbalance order effects of stimuli. One item of stimuli will randomly given to each researcher on completion we will pool the data collected.

Facial Expressions

Male

Female

Neutral

A

B

Pro social

C

D

Anti social

E

F

8. Statistical analysis.

a. Descriptive: Briefly state which numerical and visual analyses you will presentAll in APA style. Descriptive statistics in a table, including means and standard deviation. A figure of a line graph showing means plotted and confidence intervals.

b. Inferential: Briefly state what kind of two-way Anova you will carry out

Mixed-Anova

c. Post hoc: Assuming the interaction is significant, what post hoc analyses will you do to explain it?Separate analysis of men and women, using one-way Anova for each, and T-tests comparing 3 x 2 sample

d. State which inference criteria you will use (p for interaction and main effects and for post hoc), CI and effect size statistics.

.05 for F

95% CI

Partial Eta squared - for f statistics

Cohens d (t test)

Two way anova between groups designs

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